Skip to main content

About your Search

20120901
20120930
STATION
MSNBCW 13
MSNBC 12
CSPAN 11
FOXNEWS 11
CNN 7
CNNW 7
CSPAN2 7
WHUT (Howard University Television) 4
KGO (ABC) 2
KQED (PBS) 2
WETA 2
KNTV (NBC) 1
KPIX (CBS) 1
KRCB (PBS) 1
( more )
LANGUAGE
English 97
Search Results 0 to 49 of about 97 (some duplicates have been removed)
of saudi intelligence, ambassador to the united states and other countries >> a throughou these 80 some years that we have had our kingdom, everybody keeps talking about an uncertain future for the kingdom and because of the sagacity of the people of saudi arabia and the good will of the leadership and the government we have survived pretty well so far we have many problems to face, including syria. many challenges internal among the ung pele and how the go about the courses of development not just economically but socially and politically and the role of women, etc. all of these are tremendous challenges that are being debated within the kingdom and not coming from the outside. >> rose: tom friedman and prince turki al-faisal when we continue. captioning sponsored by rose communications from our studios in new york city, this is charlie rose. >> rose: tom friedman is here, he is a pulitzer prize winning columnist in for the "new york times." for more than 30 years he's been writing ant foreign affairs, american politics and so much more. in addition to serving as bureau chief in beirut
foundation. that is why i am running for a second term as the president of the united states. >> find any speech from the democratic or republican conventions on line at the c- span.org video library. >> paul ryan campaign to in the battleground state of nevada on friday. she talked about a new trade policy. utilizing domestic energy resources. this is about 20 minutes. ♪ >> hey, everybody. how're you doing over there? hello. wow. look at you all. man. it is so great to see you. thank you so much for coming out. i love you, too, man. thank you for coming out and stand in line. i appreciate it. i want to thank you for something else. thank you for those electoral votes and thank you for making mitt romney the next president of the united states. we have got a job to do, friends. and you know what? we have a lot of people who need jobs. and we have a big choice ahead of us. the question is, are we going to stick with four more years of the same? the same path? no. are we going to have a country in debt, doubt, and decline? or are we going to do what we need to do to get people back to wor
. the embassy of the united states of cairo condemns the continuing efforts by misguided vinls to hurt the rely jougs feelings of muslims as we condemn efforts to hurt all believers. before the attacks had begun and american fatalities. it seems to me like a reasonable statement of people trying to keep the peace and prevent attack on the embassy. do you think there was anything out of line about this statement or do you think this was a reasonable thing for an embassy in cairo to be doing? >> this was an absolutely reasonable thing for the embassy in cairo to be doing. politics in the united states notwithstanding. i would have issued or had authorized my public affairs staff to issue a similar statement for what essentially was a demonstration and try to calm things without knowledge, of course, how this violence was going to break out next door in libya. listen, i can't put myself in the shoes of the ambassador of egypt. i don't know what exactly she knew or didn't know at the time when the statement was issued. the fact of the matter is there is obviously question over whether it was cleare
are not going to t along with anyone, so why try to pacify them? england, the united states, get out of the united nations. i'm tired of hearing hate speeches from people from other countries condemning us. this is a united nations of hate. host: if you go to the united nations web site, it says -- what you think? caller: i think at the time it was probably a good thing, but i don't think they counted on the rise of communism from china and russia and on the muslims and i think the muslims are a big problem with the united nations right now and we should stop trying to pacify them. we have a wenow who seems to sit there and watched-- we have a president now who seems to sit there and watch it. all he has been doing is apologizing. they killed two of our soldiers in afghanistan and the apologized to them. when the embassy was attacked, it was the man who had the movie's iffault. these people hate us. host: here is this on twitter -- here's the washington post front page -- many remember last year when the palestinian leader's request for membership was denied, not something supported
be a movement for the united states to withdraw to fortress america, to renounce our -- our -- our service to the world in helping these countries achieve the same democracy and freedom that our forefathers strived for? i do not mean to use his death as any kind of political agenda, but i think my friend and i remember him well enough to know that the worst outcome of this tragedy wod be for the united states to withdraw. in fact, i am confident that if he were here, he would be urging us to get right back in, get -- bring these extremists to justice and press on with the democracy and freedom that the people of libya deserve and have earned at great loss of blood and treasure. mr. lieberman: mr. president, i couldn't agree more with my friend from arizona. it would -- it would really dishonor the service of chris stevens and the three other americans who served us in libya if their murders by these extremists led us to retrench and pull out of libya and stop supporting the new libyan government, democratically elecd, pull out of other parts of the arab world. that would be exactly the opp
carefully. >> would you consider the current egyptian regime an ally of the united states? >> i don't think that we would consider them an ally, but we don't consider them an enemy. they are a new government that is trying to find its way. they were democratically elected. i think that we will have to see how they respond to this incident, how they respond to, for example, maintaining the peace treaty with israel. >> i want to bring in nick kristof and look at the cover this week. the agents of outrage. we'll talk about that, as well. couldn't be happier to have the two of you and your expertise in this area. i want to start with what happened in libya and give us your perspective. these assailants were heavily armed. it they seemed to be organized. does it seem to you perhaps to have been timed for 9/11, was it an attack of opportunity? >> i really don't know. but it is unusual in that libya is really the most pro american country in the region. the ambassador was be loved in libya. he had helped save benghazi, the city in which he was murdered. and libya as responded pretty appropriately.
, a justification for murdering. it's never the fault of a movie. it's never the fault of the united states. it's never the fault of western culture that people are murdered in the name of somebody else's religion. it's the responsibility and it's the fault and people to be held accountable are the ones who committed these specific acts of terror against the united states. in the past, the united states has always held and went after those responsible for this time of conduct. in 1998 when the kenyan embassy was attacked and americans were killed, we responded. of course we responded in 9/11. we responded after the first world trade center bombing. in 1996 when 19 american soldiers were murdered in saudi arabia we responded. in fact, president bill clinton said this -- the cowards who committed this murderous act must not go unpunished. we will not rest in our efforts to find who is responsible for this outrage to pursue them and to punish them. and after 9/11, president bush made this comment -- the search is under way for those who are behind these evil acts. i've directed the full resources
change in the united states and how it's been shifted pretty rapidly over time as the great state of nevada. obama is running ahead of though not nearly as far as he did in 2008. but it still will cut off on my monitor but you can see an incredible increase of nine percentage points for the share of eligible voters who are minorities according to the data between 2008 and 2012. that's a massive demographic tide against the republicans and you can see there's been a decline of five percentage points in the share of voters that are colleges john became group into bills and eight. that is a very quick run through some of the swing states in the 2008 election. maybe it's time for me to step back, catch my breath and just say why is this. why is this going on? why does obama have the lead he does? why is from the having difficulty, and what many people argue should be the core limping along economy and a president that has done so much as the defense and its face it popular at the beginning like the health care reform act and so long, the stimulus looked upon unfavorably by a lot of vo
important managerial job in the world. president of the united states leader of the free world. my question was, how does he do a? how does he decide? how does he make incisions? how does the governor? >> the senate is about to return from recess for a series of those. a bill to continue funding the government for six months. a bill sponsored by montana senator, jon tester to ease regulations and was on some outdoor sports, fishing and hunting. and a bill by kentucky senator, randy paul to cut off u.s. aid to pakistan, libya and egypt. this is live coverage of the senate on c-span 2. senate will come to order. mr. leahy: mr. president? the presiding officer: the senator from vermont is recognized. mr. leahy: mr. president seeing the distinguished chairman of the foreign relations committee in the chair, i have a feeling i may be preaching to the converted but let me say that we were -- all of us were outraged by the mob that denigrated the muslim faith -- or by the video that denigrated the muslim faith but then by the mob violence, some of it rep
reauthorization makes plain that discrimination is not the policy of these united states. it says no program funded by federal vawa dollars can turn away a domestic violence victim because of their sexual orientation or their gender identity, whether the victim is gay or straight, american indian, white, black or latino, in my view, madam president, and in the view of so many in this chamber, they deserve protection from abuse and justice for their abusers. there are two other important changes in this vawa reauthorization as passed through the senate. both of which help ensure we bring perpetrators to justice no national who their victims are or where the claims are committed. these help law enforcement to secure needed testimony from victims who are unwilling to come forward due to reasonable fears of deportation. so in total, all three of these important changes to the substance and scope of vawa i think strengthen it, i think carry forward its initial spirit and i think are completely appropriate things for this senate and the house to do in our every five-year reconsideration and reauth
, president of the united states of america. >> mr. president, mr. secretary general, fellow delegates, ladies and gentleman, i would like to begin today by telling you about an american named chris stevens. chris was born in a town called grass valley, california, the son of a lawyer and a musician. as a young man, chris joined the peace corps, and taught english in morocco. and he came to love and respect the people of north africa and the middle east. he would carry that commitment throughout his life. as a diplomat, he worked from egypt to syria, from saudi arabia to libya. he was known for walking the streets of the cities where he worked -- tasting the local food, meeting as many people as he could, speaking arabic, listening with a broad smile. chris went to benghazi in the early days of the libyan revolution, arriving on a cargo ship. as america's representative, he helped the libyan people as they coped with violent conflict, cared for the wounded, and crafted a vision for the future in which the rights of all libyans would be respected. and after the revolution, he supported the birt
to dissociate the united states from that hateful video that insulted the prophet of islam. he said that there are important rights of free speech under the first amendment and we have to protect those rights, and if the government a press free-speech, it makes the world a less free place. he also had a message for iran, that while we want to negotiate through diplomacy if possible, time is not unlimited. that was a warning to the iranian government, which has been obstreperous and very difficult to deal with. i think it was a very important speech the president gave in new york. host: how about mitt romney? can you assess from what you have heard and hear him write these past few months? is there a romney doctrine on foreign policy? how would you encapsulate it? guest: i don't know if there is a romney doctrine yet. governor romney is a very smart, successful person. my guess is that it is not the issue he wants to emphasize in the campaign. once the campaign to be about the economy and the unemployment rate. it is a difficult position for a republican to be running against a democ
right now . socialized medicine in the united states of america. what is that about care so as it about writing the book to it ocd ronnie touched on this because this was one of the central arguments. as i started to write ipod, well, of course obama is redistributing wealth here tell he is a socialist. in fact, i have a section in the book called this a socialist is a big fat liar. i was on with neil cavuto last week. he said to me, come on. look at this title. cassette, tell me what part of that is inaccurate. he is skinny. he goes on the secret burger runs, but he's not taking any rate. he's a socialist. he's lied to the american people day in and day out. prime example, will cut the deficit in half and my first term we all know how that turned out. he inherited a for under $50 billion annual deficit. he has quadrupled the. every year he's been in office he has run between 13 and $17 trillion annual deficit . added five to international debt and just three years. to give it to see -- this white. it took in three years at 5 trillion. for the first 216 years of the republic that is how
are looking for any an opportunity to strike the united states and our interests. megyn: 20 minutes ago i spoke with dana rohrabacher, he was in that briefing yesterday. tony life, congressman dana rohrabacher from california. a member of the house foreign relations committee. he was in the briefing yesterday. welcome to the program. >> thank you very much. megyn: i want to get your reaction to those comments. the secretary of state, hillary clinton, tried to offer some intel on where they think this investigation is now. what can you share with us in terms of what you learned? >> by and large, it was a very top-secret briefing on trent briefing of classified information was being given out. what is most important is the attitude behind that information. as we can see, the president is bending over backwards red as he has been since the beginning of his administration. not to blame radical islam, not to give them some sort of hateful or evil intentions, but giving them the benefit of the doubt. this response to this attack, this murder of american diplomats, on 9/11, it's no doubt that it
people. because the senate bill was inclusive and every woman member , republican, of the united states senate voted for it. everyone. that was the difference between the two bills. those who were included and a more specific group that are now included, which we think they ought to be, but we also think there aren't people include who had need to be. with all due respect i think my characterization was absolutely accurate. but it's interesting, mr. speaker, that we still haven't eabed the question -- answered the question. we tend to want to talk about other things. 98% of americans should not get a tax increase on january 1 that are making less than $250,000 individually as a family. i think we agree on that. mr. speaker, now i haven't heard that we don't agree on that but we agree on that which means there are 2% on which we do not agree. and that bill has not been brought to the floor that passed the united states senate dealing with that 98%. or 97% of small business. now, mr. speaker, it seems to me if we have agreement on 98% and the president of the united states will sign that
of the united states in some of these countries just so great, some might say anything will trigger violence against the united states or u.s. interests in the area? >> there are decades of resentment that have built up over time, be it for american support for "the dictator"shthcn the region but we can't demagogues it. there are many good allies to the united states in and across the arab world. the administration is trying to ensure it strengthening the allies nin the days ahead, and that's the right approach. >> we'll continue to talk about this in the days to come. >>> up next, with 50 days to go until the election, is team romney relaunching? there's new details about internal dissent within the romney camp over his messages. rahm emanuel takes legal action to end the teachers strike that he calls a strike of joe. congressman keith ellison the first muslim elected to the house talks to us live to talk about the deadly attacks in libya. you can find us @tamronhall and @newsnation. by bright eyes you're not just looking for a house. you're looking for a place for your life to happen. but
for beater future for these united states. bless us this day and every day and may all that is done be for your greater honor and glory. amen. the speaker: the chair has examined the journal of the last day's proceedings and announces to the house his approval thereof. pursuant to clause 1 of rule 1 the journal stands approved. the pledge of allegiance today will be led by the gentlelady from illinois, ms. schakowsky. ms. schakowsky: thank you for the honor, mr. speaker. i invite those in the gallery to join us. i pledge allegiance to the flag of the united states of america and to the republic for which it stands, one nation under god, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all. the speaker: the chair will entertain up to five one-minute requests on each side. for what purpose does the gentleman from south carolina rise? mr. wilson: mr. speaker, i ask unanimous consent to address the house for one minute and to revise and extend my remarks. the speaker: without objection, so ordered. mr. wilson: mr. speaker, as we enter the final stages of this election cycle, the american peopl
citizens to pay the price of inaction by the united states senate. we will make sure that government services continue until this great referendum that this great republic will have in november. it's a six-month continuing resolution, mr. speaker. and it will solve that need. this rule also, mr. speaker, provides for consideration of h.r. 6365, it's called the national security and job protection act, but what it is is a sequester replacement bill. you remember, mr. speaker, i don't know that i've ever been more disgusted in my 18 months in this body, we came together here in this house in a bipartisan fashion, we passed the budget control act which gave six house members and six senate members, six republicans, six democrats, 12 members of this congress, esteemed members of this congress, talented, bright, conscientious, america-loving members of this congress, an opportunity to look at our entire budget, not just the $3.8 trillion that we spend this year, mr. speaker, not just that $3.8 trillion, but next year and the year after that and the year after that, well into the three gen
the ascension into the world trade association. she said the united states must normalize trade relations so american business can reap -- speakingrussia's in the new york times, this piece in the weekly review pointing out the democratic party realized one kind of history and it would like to realize another with hillary. it is time for a woman. both conventions there were ghosts of politics past, present, and teacher. next is he larry. caller: i have been watching this for -- ever since it started here. i have been paying close attention throughout my life. my parents were democrats. i have seen them, and i have seen -- i became an independent. i voted for the ban that would best do the job. well, in the last four years i have seen republicans cost the united states a downgrade adventure it's true -- in its credit rating. i have seen them block every opportunity to come to a budget conclusion. i have seen paul ryan and make statements that he knows are false. all through the whole scenario of the last four years. you would know he is lying about fax. as far as mitt romney goes, you're sorr
: >> today we mourn for more americans who represent the very best of the united states of america. >> the statement that came from the administration was a statement which is akin to apology. >> with more americans being murdered in america, a war of words breaks out between the president and his challenger governor romney. we have a special report and give you the inside story. >> this is really raw visceral hate and you hear it day after day through the fox crowd. that is complete rubbish. >> charles krauthammer and a liberal "the washington post" columnist go head to head over hate toward president obama. charles will be zero if the republic party is missing anything it's sort of this war on women. >> war on women? sandra fluke? she is 30 for god's sake. just shut up for a second, okay? >> dennis miller man oman over the president. >> go factor, go factor. >> caution, you where to enter the no spin zone from massachusetts. the factor begins right now. ♪ ♪ >> bill: hi, i'm bill o'reilly, reporting tonight from washington, more americans murdered by militant muslims. that is
, that the first response to the united states must be outrage at the breach of the sovereignty of our nation. and apology for america's values is never the right course. >> democrats even some republicans say mitt romney jumped the gun. so how hard is to manage presidential politics and foreign policy? my guest this afternoon, general wesley clark, former nato commander. also chairman and ceo of wesley k. clark and associates. that is a segment for another day, wesley k. clark and associates. also ran for president in 2004 as a democrat. good afternoon to you, sir. thanks for being here with us. mitt romney has come under fire for his comments in the wake of what's happening in the middle east. what are the challenges, what are the difficulties of taking on an incumbent war time president? >> well, first of all, you don't know what he knows. he has the whole apparatus of the u.s. government feeding him information and you're somewheres else and you're being handled by aides. so you don't have a good -- the smart thing to do is get your facts together before you speak. don't pop off. don't ju
the world, american embassies and even german and british beamtions are on high alert. united states marines so-called fast teams. teams to secure embassies are being dispatched throughout the middle east to ensure the safety of our personnel abroad in many public squares across the middle east, flags are being burned and embassies are attempting to be entered by some of these protesters. a terrifying map if you think about it it includes not just countries you would expect to experience unrest. countries like tunisia that you would think relatively unstable. that as it at this that that that -- >> jay carney, the white house press secretary says something eyebrow-raising and interesting yesterday when he was asked what the source of all this unrest is. let's listen: this is a fairly volatile situation not in response to united states policy. not to to obviously the administration or the american people. it is response to it a video, a film that we have a judged to be reprehensible and disgusting. that in no way justifies any violent reaction to it, but this is not a case of protest directe
to millions suffering from hiv aids. second is to foster a substantial united states strategic interests. perhaps military or diplomatic or economic. third is another purpose and one that i think has to receive much more attention and higher priority. in a romney administration and that is aid that elevates people and brings about lasting change in communities and nations. here is an example. a lot of americans including myself are troubled by developments in the middle east. syria has witnessed the killing of tens of thousands of people. the presidents of egypt is a member of the muslim brotherhood. our ambassador to libya was assassinated in a terrorist attack. iran is moving toward nuclear weapons capability. we somehow feel we are at the mercy of events rather than shaping events. i am often asked why. what can we do about it? to ease the suffering and enter and the hate and violence? religious extremism is part of a problem but that is not the whole story. the population of the middle east is very young particularly in comparison to the population of the developed nations. typically
to be than right here in washington d.c. to do that. well, he joined the united states senate in january of 2011 and he has established himself as a constitutional conservative, pledging to work every day to reform government and as business as usual here in our nation's capital. i'm proud to say he hasn't received a 100% score on the frc action scorecard for the 112th congress, voting to defund obamacare and planned parenthood [applause] he is a devoted father and husband. married to his wife kelly for over 21 years and together they have had the joy of raising three teenage boys, william, duncan and robert. amidst a busy schedule he regulates in volunteers and coaches their baseball and soccer teams. please help me welcome to the stage from the great state of kentucky -- well his dad is from texas. and they both stand for protecting the constitution for which i am extremely grateful. please welcome senators rand paul. [applause] ♪ ♪ >> thank you. can you believe we had trouble getting -- the democrats had trouble getting god into the platform? sounds like there wasn't much dissensi
for making mitt romney the next president of the united states. we have got a job to do, friends. and you know what? we have a lot of people who need jobs. and we have a big choice ahead of us. the question is, are we going to stick with four more years of the same? the same path? no. are we going to have a country in debt, doubt, and decline? or are we going to do what we need to do to get people back to work, to fix the mess in washington, and to get this country back on the right track. [applause] we want to earn your support. we want to deserve a victory. here is the problem. president obama and too many politicians like him in washington, they are more worried about their next election than they are worried about the next generation. [applause] we need leadership. you have mark here. that man is a great leader. send him back to help us fix the mess in washington. we have entrepreneurs in this country that built this country. by the way, john phillips, we are here at your business. you know what? you built this business. [applause] the government does not get the credit for that. you
a coalition of countries is holding iran accountable and that is why the united states must do when we must to prevent iran -- that last part, the we must do what we must to prevent iran obtaining nuclear weapon. what does that mean? will he launch u.s. military action. what will he do if israel launch as unilateral attack before the election against iran to stop its nuclear program? these are the major questions. martha: that is to the heart of it. that is what benjamin netanyahu said, wait, wait for what? this is the crux of the tension between the two. ed, thanks so much. be back to you in a little while. bill: we want to get back to carl cameron. you know what is on the plate, whether it is egypt, or iran's nuclear program, the dust-up with israeli prime minister benjamin netanyahu. do you know from the campaign whether or not governor romney will address any of this or all of it or stay away? >> reporter: in the clinton global initiative he will larkly focus on issues he was sort of asked to speak about which is international development. he has specific ideas. linking foreign aid to o
the bus. now we've seen a very different timeline from israel and the united states from netanyahu. netanyahu says within months iran will have gone beyond the point of no return. american intelligence believes there's more time. where do we stand now with israel and is mitt romney -- >> we stand -- >> that the president has thrown israel under the bus? >> well, first of all, the term throwing israel under the bus is really a remarkable -- you know, it's an unbelievably cynical explosivetive term that is also a lie. it is a fundamental lie. and mitt romney ought to be ashamed of himself for continuing to say it when he knows that prime minister netanyahu and defense minister ehud barak have both said this administration has the strongest security and military cooperation with israel it has ever had. ever. and the president has taken steps to put america in a position to deal with iran with whatever eventuality may be necessary, and i mean whatever eventuality may be necessary. the president made that crystal clear in his speech at the united nations. and, yesterday, prime minister
of the united states being torn down from embassies across the middle east and replaced over sovereign u.s. territory with the flag of al qaeda. you have tens of thousands of people being killed in syria and the administration is doing 234 nothing about it. looks like tehran, 1979, across the middle east. >> that's what many republicans are saying. the democrats and some republicans say governor romney stumbled badly when he criticized mr. obama after the death of the u.s. ambassador to libya. in the end, could you argue that romney's tactic proves successful? it did change the conversation. at least about libya. >> yeah. find it -- fascinating that so many people are talking about romney had a gaffe. it turns out he was right. that one that it was wrong to put pout an n a statement -- criticizing the -- apologizing for the video which the administration continued to do and obama will do again today in his u.n. speech. but also, you know, who had the foreign policy gaffes? it has been president obama. president obama went on "60 minutes" and called what's happening in the middle east bum
to the united states and says that the u.s. needs to show a greater respect to arab values and culture. reports say that he attempted to meet with president obama at the white house, but dropped that request later. >> absolutely no one intentionally or unintentionally misled anybody involved in this. >> the obama administration has taken a lot of heat on what is happening in libya. republicans are calling the way the attack was handled, quote, a debacle. thank you, very much, great to see you. i would like to start -- >> good to be here. >> with a quote from senator bob corker, briefed by secretary of state clinton and several intelligence leaders late last week about the attacks on benghazi and what was happening in egypt. he said, this is a direct quote -- that was the most useless, worthless briefing i have attended in a long time. this from a senator, not prone it overstatement. what's your take on that? >> i agree. we also in the house received the same briefing. i don't know if they said the same things, but it was the same participants. it was led by our house foreign affairs committee.
are talking the. they are manufactured within the united states or elsewhere. .. each one of those elements are probably designed in multiple countries most likely manufacture the components in multiple countries. they were integrated components in multiple countries, and that becomes the particular product. any one of these tablets or computers or smart phones that you have has likely touched more than 40 countries along the way. is it really possible to talk about an indigenous manufacturing them as we are managing the risk? the distribution. we need to think about secure distribution channels that distribution of all of the multiple components coming into another component that then goes to market, and when we think about that distribution channel and that procurement channel, we need to give the vendors credit that they actually have vetted their suppliers and those distribution channels because they don't want counterfeit products getting to market, so we need to use their trusten channel partners, their value added resellers and or off of the vetted tables of gsa and at the end of the
to be the standard security in high risk consuls and embassies that the united states has around the world and that includes no low refile armored vehicles, the vehicles that have the tires that will continue to operate even if they're shot out. and other security measures were not there on the ground. general jack keane commented on the security that was missing here on fox. >> there's been a pattern of attacks all through the summer. so we have a pat he tern of specific aggressive attacks and finally, our consulate is attacked. now, that's a movement that's doing that and that is coordinated. i don't think any film, even 9/11 maybe the day they chose to do it because of its significance, but that's certainly people who are out of power, there are moderates in power in libya, they want it undermine that government and foreign powers assisting that government are the target. common sense will tell you that our security for that ambassador and that consulate was totally inadequate. and after we do that assessment and we're putting the proper security in place, rest assured whatever it looks
Search Results 0 to 49 of about 97 (some duplicates have been removed)